SWITCHED/SYNCHRONOUS RELUCTANCE MAGNET-FREE MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLESA�

vigora in hindi. “Analogous to the Earth’s twin planet Venus which has no magnetic field, the VENUS-FAGOR motors aim to replace their “twin” motors that are currently mounted in most EV-s without making use of permanent magnets.”

One of the European Uniona��s key policy objectives for the upcoming decades is cutting 60% of CO2 emissions from transport, where fossil fuel dependence is around 96%.

Electric vehicles (EV) are considered to be the most plausible alternative to fossil fuel-based road transport.

While the main focus for the wide scale introduction of EVs so far has been placed on the batteries, where significant research and effort is being put to address its associated long-term performance and manufacturing issues, there is a second source of uncertainty related to the availability of reliable and diversified supply of metals to produce the necessary permanent magnets (PM) to assure high efficiency and high power density electrical motors.

Progressive vehicle electrification is considered one of the main ways to promote efficiency and to meet broad environmental concerns; yet its greener version, i.e., pure electric vehicle (EV), has not been extended so far due to the insufficient energy density of batteries to provide the desirable autonomy and power.

The shift from a fossil fuel dependence scenario to a permanent-magnet dependence scenario (even more critical as they can only be found under single source monopolies) could limit significantly the large scale introduction of EVs as PM based motors could not be supplied in adequate volumes at a competitive cost.

In recent years a technological breakthrough has occurred on this issue: largely driven by the explosion in consumer electronic demand (laptops, digital cameras, etc.) online indian viagra in uae. lithium-ion battery technology is reaching energy densities approaching 200Wh/kg and even more due to ongoing research (including current EU funded projects HELIOS, AMELIE and EUROLIION), which makes EVs with practical ranges of >130 km become physically possible while respecting reasonable vehicle size/mass/cost limits.

Currently, the most powerful and efficient electric machines use permanent magnets composed by rare-earth materials such as neodymium and dysprosium. The problem is that 95% of the global supply of these materials is provided by China. In order to establish a successful large scale EV manufacturing industry in Europe a new necessity arises: finding an efficient and power dense alternative to permanent-magnet machines.

In this context, two different approaches can be followed:

  • Development of materials for permanent magnets without rare-earth content, with magnetic properties comparable to them.
  • Design electric machines with less permanent-magnet material, with materials different from rare-earths or even completely magnet free.

Advantages a�� VENUS Project

Cost

Permanent magnets are expensive and their avoidance allows European manufacturers to use only well-known and (relatively) cheap engineering materials (e.g. steel, copper), reducing the total cost of the motor.

Reliability

Permanent magnets have risk of demagnetization which can generate performance variations at elevated temperatures. Magnet-free designs can offer steady behavior, practically unaffected by exposure to environment conditions and/or external magnetic fields, thus more reliable for their integration in EVs.

Manufacturability

The electrical machine’s assembly process must deal with magnetic fields in the presence of permanent magnets. This may lead to increased failure in assembled motors. Magnet-free designs could simplify this process as there are no magnetic fields and assembly process could be significantly simplified.

Objective a�� VENUS Project

Efficiency

Permanent-magnet motor efficiency is around 92-95%, whereas other alternative technologies integrated in pure EVs (e.g. induction motor in Tesla Roadster) only reach efficiencies around 85%.

Power density

Permanent-magnet motors characterize for a large power to weight/size ratio. Current magnet-free motor technologies implemented in EVs (induction) are large in size and have low power density.

Manufacturability

New motor designs focused to improve power density (e.g. axial-flux configurations) have been shelved prior to large volume marketing due to their manufacturing complexity, or poor/simple winding arrangements have been used to overcome such manufacturing difficulties with the associated performance loss.

VENUS project aims to develop a novel electric drive system for EVs, (i) free of rare-earth magnets, (ii) which meets EV performance requirements (efficiency, power density) and (iii) that is feasible for mass-production.

In order to achieve that, VENUS will develop an axial-flux variable-reluctance machine, SRM or PMSynRM:

Axial-flux PMSynRM is a completely novel configuration for any application, combining already known advantages of radial-flux PMSynR machines with the torque increase and advantageous pancake shape of replicas relojes axial-flux configurations, although it requires quite complex manufacturing.

However the raw material dependence problem of the EU is even more worrying when it comes to the electric motors themselves replicas de relojes rather than their batteries. Currently, the most powerful and efficient electric machines use permanent magnets composed by rare-earth materials such as neodymium and dysprosium.

The problem is that 95% of the global supply of these materials is provided by China only which puts at risk a mass introduction of EVs in Europe if the current motor technology is exclusively embraced. In order to establish a successful large scale EV manufacturing industry in Europe a new necessity arises: finding an efficient and power dense alternative to permanent-magnet machines.

This project has received funding from the European Uniona��s 7th Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No 605429.

IK4-TEKNIKER

Polo Tecnológico de Eibar
Calle Iñaki Goenaga, 5
20600 Eibar, Gipuzkoa
Spain
Contact person (Jon Madariaga): jon.madariaga@tekniker.es

www.tekniker.es

FAGOR ELECTRONICA S. COOP.

Barrio San Andrés
20500 Mondragón
Spain

www.fagorelectronica.es

LOTUS CARS LIMITED

Potash Lane – Hethel
Norfolk NR14 8EZ
United Kingdom

www.lotuscars.com

DR.-ING. ERNST BRAUN GMBH

Martin-Luther-Strasse 1
88400 Biberach an der Riss
Germany

www.braun-inst.de

MOTOR DESIGN LTD

4 Scotland Street
Ellesmere, Shropshire, SY12 0EG
United Kingdom

www.motor-design.com

MONDRAGON GOI ESKOLA POLITEKNIKOA J.M.A. S.COOP.

Loramendi 4
20500 Mondragón
Spain

www.mondragon.edu/en/phs

F A Q

In the Venus project, we are developing a new concept of rare earth free electrical motor for electrical vehicle.
The European Industry is dependent of other countries for supply of rare earth materials. In 2011, due to a reduction in China’s exportation quota, the price of rare earth magnets increased dramatically. Different sector which were benefitting from permanent magnet motor technology started to put in doubt the economic feasibility of permanent motors in mass production. Although the prices nowadays are moderated, the uncertainty about the availability of rare earth materials make important to have an alternative motor concept that is rare earth free which could fulfill the highest requirements in terms of efficiency and power density.
The magnets increase the power density of electrical motor designs. To overcome the absence of magnets, VENUS team's concept is based on combining two technologies, Switched Reluctance Motors (SRM) and Axial Flux technology. SRM motors exhibit good performance despite the fact that this topology does not employ any magnets. However, the power density of this topology is inherently lower than permanent magnet motors at same size/topology. Combining Axial flux motors with SRM topology, the power density increases and the resultant motor concept can be a competitive technology.
Venus project will develop and manufacture an Axial-Flux Switched Reluctance Motor and will integrate it in a commercial electric van to validate the design concept in a real application. The prototype will be fully operative including communication protocols, ad hoc developed power electronics and specially designed high performance control. All this elements will be manufactured by VENUS team members focusing in the highest integration of the different parts.
In the design stage of the motor and the drive, the feasibility of mass production has been taken into account. The economic feasibility for mass production of the whole drive by European Industries is one of the main design targets of the VENUS project.
If you have any comment or you are interested in the VENUS project, please send an e-mail to venus@tekniker.es and we will answer as soon as possible.
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Fagor ElectrA?nica S.Coop

Barrio San AndrA�s, s/n. Apdo 33.do my homework for me effects of technology essay example
20500 MondragA?n (Spain)
Tel: + 34 943 71 25 26
e.mail: fe@fagorelectronica.es

Fagor ElectrA?nica is situated in MondragA?n (GuipA?zcoa), in the heart of the Basque Country and it has a modern plant with more than 12,500 sq.m. Located in an environment that is committed to innovation, with various innovation poles, we have a team of professionals who were trained at our replica watches training centres and the University of Mondragon (MU).

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